Dr Toh Kin Woon’s resignation and friendly advice

Dr Toh Kin Woon, a central committee member and an ex-exco of Penang, has resigned from Parti Gerakan, as reported in Malaysiakini yesterday, one day after he endorsed Anwar  in his personal capacity for the seat of Permatang Pauh .

As I see it, this is inevitable since a “friendly advice” was given by a Gerakan top leader a few days ago when Dr Toh was seen to attend a PKR ceramah in Permatang Pauh .. This leader, CEO of Gerakan,   was quoted today as saying he did not know the reasons why Dr Toh resigned. This is typical of his style, which is so “false” and so “fake”, and anyone could read through that this is not said from his heart. A leader that is not sincere has no place in the hearts of the people.

Do you know why  Gerakan branches and divisions are so quiet over many of the national issues, even though many of the grassroots are very independent minded and really believe in a fair and equal society? Unlike other component parties and unlike in the seventies and eighties and early nineties , when Gerakan Branches and Divisions used to give out press release and commenting on national issues, no branch or even division leaders have been giving out grassroots opinion openly through press statements  in the past few years.  His style of giving “friendly advice” is one of the main causes of why Gerakan grassroots have been very quiet on many of the national issues; unlike MCA and UMNO, where Branch and division chairmen continue to issue statements,  some of which are even against the national leadership.

This culture of giving “friendly advice’  is also one of the main reasons for the party becoming so inert.  His reasons of giving freindly advice is: Do not  “rock the boat”… And finally the boat was rocked by the the rakyat and not by members themselves..

I hold him and his friendly advice responsible for Dr Toh’s resignation from the party and the party’s inertness over the past few years. 

 When the conscience of the party leaves the party, what is left now?

Dr Toh is one of the few that is truthful to Gerakan’s Ideology. But a very senior leader, lets us call him the  Mouth Piece, recently uttered in a meeting that Ideology is not important, to the shock of many KL leaders present.. If ideology is not important, then why is he in the party? For “Kang Dou”? For power? For control? For his children? …..With this type of ‘leaders’, little wonder that the party has gone to the drain.

To this type of leaders, ideology is not important, winning the hearts of the people is not important, and the only important thing is to twist and bend to suit Top Leader of the party and UMNO’s whims and fancies. When even MCA realises that it needs to change to a more multiracial outlook, this leader, representing Old Eunuchs, says that ideology is not important.

With Dr Toh’s exit, Gerakan stands the risk to  lose whatever goodwill there is remaining from the Penang people. As a grassroot, I am utterly disappointed….

I will face the consequence of this post, since the leader that gave the friendly advice is the CEO of the party. I stand to be chopped, like those loyal officials in the  Courts of the Chinese emperors in by gone years, who despite knowing that their heads would roll, continued to give good but bitter advice to the emperors, and often resulting in the whole family being chopped.  But as person growing up in an Confucian environment, and trained in Confucian classics,  I will not run away from my responsibility as a loyal member, and I stand by what i have said along. 

 “Good medicine is often bitter”, I end this post with this saying…

Please read:  Gerakan and Permatang Pauh: https://hsudarren.wordpress.com/2008/08/18/a-square-peg-in-a-round-hole-gerakan-and-permatang-pauh/

32 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Trackback: Dr Toh Kin Woon quits …after friendly advice « Dr Hsu’s Forum
  2. Taikohtai
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 11:45:38

    G’day Dr Hsu,

    Looks like Dr Toh has seen the light.
    The light of a multiculturism thriving in Malaysia without fear or favour.
    He has taken a most bold step that I firmly believe is in the right direction. I certainly hope more of Gerakan members will do the same.

    Cheers.

    Like

  3. monsterball
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 11:48:52

    You will be chopped into pieces by CEO of Gerakan…..sooner or later….hahahahahaha
    But he needs all members he can get…so your membership is safe……whether you like it or not.
    Best you go to Permatang Pauh …meet some keDAILan members…. stand up.. shouting……
    “Go to hell with Koh Tsu Khoon. I dare you to sack me” That will work!

    Like

  4. chauncey gardener
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 12:03:04

    Dr Hsu,

    I agree with Monsterball that sooner or later, you will get chopped because the Gerakan leadership’s view of the party’s “Ideology” is not in sync with its grassroots. There is a disconnect in which the leadership has failed to communicate to the members – what is the raison d’etre of the Gerakan party ?

    I believe that you represent the grassroot’s view very clearly and concisely. If someone like Dr Toh can get advised to leave the party, surely more will follow.

    Like

  5. petestop
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 12:10:50

    Gerakan Wanita Chief Tan Lian Ho calls to “quit BN” then within hours backtracked in Chinese newspaper and say that it is not her call, but Gerakan delegates call.

    Perak chief Chan Ko Youn said 80% of Gerakan delegates in Perak supported “quit BN” calls.

    Then suddenly everything is hushed.

    They must have received a “friendly advise” from Gerakan’s dictator-for-life.

    Comes the October election, please do your part and vote these Eunuch politicians out.

    Please put people with good conscience and moral compass like Doc Hsu behind Gerakan’s wheel, so that this bus is for the Rakyat, not for the Eunuchs.

    Like

  6. Gerakan Watcher
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 12:23:32

    I suspect the calls from Perak leaders have a lot to do with the chairmanship of Perak being challenged. So the incumbent ,Chang Ko Youn and also national vice president, knowing that 80% of delegates want to pull out, played to the gallery, and won handsomely against a challenger.

    It is interesting to see how he speaks in the coming national Delegates conference. Just watch.

    Like

  7. Dr Hsu
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 13:10:37

    Many Gerakan leaders and members read my blog.

    In my yesterdya’ article , a square peg in a round hole-Geraka ad Permatang Pauh, it is clear that whom I support. It is nothing personal but what I support what the civil society supports.

    By the way, malaysian Insider is now the 3rd most popular blog, after Malaysiakini., and RPK’s. Yesterday’s article was in my column in Malaysian Insider. And yesterday’s article was also listed under blogcorner in Malaysiakini too.

    I do not think i need to go and shout in Permatang Pauh. Pens have always been mightier than swords, even though the influence is slower and more subtle.

    Like

  8. int
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 13:36:15

    I think it’s not useful for Gerakan to quit BN, it’s better for Gerakan people to quit Gerakan, take some time off, then reassess the position: perhaps PKR, perhaps DAP, perhaps NGOs, perhaps quiet retirement, or perhaps migration.

    If Gerakan were to leave BN as a bloc, there is the very real possibility that it will join Pakatan Rakyat because it is in Anwar’s best interest to pursue such a strategic alliance. The tragedy is that, this will simply be the reinventing of a new Barisan Nasional, with PKR holding real power and pitting DAP and Gerakan against each other, just like how UMNO for many years had Gerakan and MCA having goes at each other. Malaysia is not really a big enough country to have broad federalist politics with lots of parties. BN vs PR is not really a two-party systems if PR is a mess.

    Furthermore, I believe the core grouses are no different today than they were on March 7th, so why the sudden awakening of conscience now? Surely pragmatism is driving a lot of your motivations. But if that’s the case, then don’t say it’s about ideology, because that would be a lie. (I am criticizing Gerakan overall, not anyone in particular, least of all you Dr. Hsu, whom I do sincerely admire)

    If Gerakan people really hold true to their ideology, it’s time to take an extended political holiday. Some soul-searching is desperately needed.

    Like

  9. monsterball
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 14:10:08

    “Pen is mightier than the sword” is applicable…when you are dealing with sincere people.
    But dealing with Koh Tsu Khoon….you need to face him……like Dr. Toh Kim Woon…no use pen…use mouth…and live actions…to get results.
    I have a strange feeling..Dr.Toh is a dentist!!
    Doc…get sacked from Gerakan!! Don’t
    resign.
    At least…..let all Malaysians read the news.
    “Dr.Shu sacked by CEO of Gerakan…not following party’s rules”…and all reporters will come hounding at your doorstep….for your comments.
    You will be famous!!
    Don’t be too simple la!
    Do that ..and give more courage for others to resign.
    “Actions speaks louder than words”

    Like

  10. Y C Chai
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 14:14:31

    Dr Hsu

    I m so relieve that my prediction finally almost come to fruition. When the jeweled crown (Penang) is gone, what is there left for Gerakan? Politics is about power and governance after all. Secondly, i can’t understand the kind of philosophy of remain in the party when you don’t subscribe to its political stand anymore.

    I do agree with int’s opinion that Gerakan should not leave en bloc as each individual should have his/her own conscience and ideology. Don’t make PR another BN in future.

    Gerakan is in autopilot mode at this moment as i can’t see KTK strong enough to navigate this sinking ship. It simply lack of charismatic leaders in Gerakan.

    Like

  11. Low Keing Hooi
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 15:20:51

    I do not understand why until now, our gerakan leadership still dreaming that it is the best option to remain in BN while we can see the UMNO extremist lighting up the flames of racisme everywhere. They are still dreaming that the rakyat will support such a muted party when ‘big brother’ having control over them?

    I find myself shameful when everytime, a party theme song is to be played (for the benefit of the non gerakan member, it’s called ‘SATU HATI’), I told myself, it is hypocritic! Every single ‘leader’ sitting on the stage is playing their own politics in order to get more support to rule the party, so as to get a ministrial post. They have their own ‘hati’ but you will never see! They might tell you thousand of speeches that how well they have served the country, but you will never see them openning their mouth even for a word that would protect any of the ethnicity.

    My fellow friends, worse still, when the gesture of putting up your right hand and shout “SATU HATI’ after the party song and you have a mixed feeling on their sincerelity, you just cannot stand it!

    Once, I have asked a ‘leader’ why no words have been uttered when issues comes, then he said: “oh! well… we said, but media either does not publish it or published in a relative small area in the paper”. Is this true? I disagree! Look at what Tan Lian Hoe has said in the Perak’s State Delegate Conference! It is a headline! So to me, it has only proved that the rest of the leaders are merely hiding behind the issues fearing that their future political career will be affected.

    Well.. I hope to ask those ‘leaders’. Would you all think that there are still political future in the party? Every tom tick and harry in the street now knows what is going on in the arena of politics. What tricks they were using in order to gain some political power to increase their personal wealth. But these political figures still think rakyat are stupid. They can be fooled around.

    Looking at what the CEO have done (in fact, I didn’t see any action has been taken until today apart from going around states to do some mouth exercising) and/or fearing to be done, I do not think a sensible rakyat will still supporting this party and hoping that this party will protect their livelihood as long as their long practised muted cuture still persist under the dominance of UMNO.

    Lastly, I find our once saudara, Lee Kah Choon and Toh Kin Woon, your decision to quit the party is not a wrong decision, but is the conscience that lead you to the right path! I hope by your continuous contribution to the society, albeit not in this party, but in a ‘non political’ basis organisation, you all may bring the best from what you have gained throughout your life for the rakyat!

    Like

  12. wazzup
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 15:29:28

    Gerakan Gerakan Gerakan Gerakan….

    For years Penangites especially the Chinese supported them and what did they do? Shoe polishing for BN’s delegate. I know KTK is a goner among Penang people when nobody approach to greet or shake his hand when he arrives during Starwalk except for some shoe polisher in bush jacket. He distance himself from the people who voted for him by sticking with his tomato sauce image. What Penangites wants is a chilli sauce leader, a man with balls (health balls at least), an ‘I don’t need your contract’ leader. If not for having a family, I’d think he is gay.

    Like

  13. chris chong
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 15:29:38

    may gerakan be like the pheonix after the fire.

    but does gerakan dare to jump into the fire?

    Like

  14. Dr Hsu
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 15:34:06

    Hi Keing Hooi, you are right. All the leaders with good potentials are forced out, one by one.

    Where is Satu Hati?

    Like

  15. int
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 15:53:48

    “may gerakan be like the pheonix after the fire.”

    Gerakan the party and gerakan the gerakan (movement) need to be thought of as different things. All you Gerakan members need to think about which is more important to you. I sincerely believe that you cannot have both, not anymore. For the gerakan to succeed, Gerakan must be respectfully retired, it has already served it’s purpose in Malaysian history. That is the only way. Otherwise, I stand by my “prediction” that I made in my previous comment.

    So which is it? Save Malaysia by bowing out for a little while, or save your egos by seeing your party score a few points in the short term?

    Like

  16. tan, tanjong bungah
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 16:03:25

    Hi Dr Hsu,

    It’s a matter of time when you’ll also be ‘chopped’ or forced to leave Gerakan. You’re just one of the very, very few remaining in Gerakan who do speak up from time to time.

    With Dr Toh out of Gerakan, its credibility in Pg is practically zero. The present ‘leaders’ are there for self-interests, only using the ‘conscience of BN’ as an excuse to hookwink the rakyat. For how long can you fool the people? The last GE shows that the people have seen thru’ their ploy.

    It’s not surprising that the National Wanita President Dato Tan Lian Hoe practises a flip-flop within 24 hours of her statement. Is she taking cognisance and standing by her grassroots wishes? Or, is she so afraid that she may lose her positions? Why when making the statement did she not clarify that she was just voicing the delegates’ feelings and that it wasn’t her stand! Similarly, can Chang Ko Youn now come out and say that his feelings on the statement is on the same wavelength as those of the 80% of the Perak delegates? Or is he also going to do a flip-flop like Dato Tan Lian Hoe?

    With the present set of leaders, the voters, particularly in Pg, would not give Gerakan a second look in the next GE. They’re still doing the status quo despite what Dato Dr LKY had declared that Gerakan is just a mere beggar in BN!

    Like

  17. Hoyohoyo
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 17:57:08

    Does the party has right to restrict even an ordinary member like you for speaking up? Can Gerakan actually “chop” you?

    Like

  18. Dr Hsu
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 18:21:16

    hoyohoyo, yes, some of the leaders do not practice what they preach and the Central Working committee is all powerful, its decision cannot be challenged even in court.

    Like

  19. Monk
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 21:14:52

    It is better to be chopped by a traitor to the people than become a traitor to your conscience.

    “You know, politics has deteriorated to the stage that any news of any politician’s death should be listed under public improvement.” (Quote: Dane, Frank)

    In BN politics, nothing is contemptible. Contemptuous BN leaders at the Permatang Pauh by elections…giving out cheques, pleading for votes, promising scrap iron licenses…but when the opposition candidate wins, government allocations are channeled to cronies and appointed accounts…not to the MP of the day!

    Dr Hsu, you’ve not lost anything by being chopped. They cannot chop your dignity and integrity. BN has lost these values in their political diarrhoea long ago.

    Monk

    Like

  20. Dr Hsu
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 21:29:01

    Stanley, Thanks you for your encouragement.
    🙂

    Like

  21. badenglish
    Aug 19, 2008 @ 23:40:49

    When disaster struck, it will split the nation into a few pockets. One of the pockets will wake up and realize that they need to change.

    Another pocket will still harbour hope that they can rebound back.

    As such, you see that Dr Toh, Lee KC falls into the 1st category whereas some other leaders fall into the later category.

    The 1st category could be missionary or yet disillusion. It depends on how they approach the issue. The 2nd category could be taking a step back or worst still, living in the world of denial.

    Until and unless this leader wakes up to their own conscience, they will then see the truth.

    The question they should ask – Is Gerakan still relevant to play its current role ? Will it be more effective playing the role with UMNO or by itself or even with Pakatan ? Once they can see the answer, that is where a decision can be made. Remember, you need to force your partner to negotiate.

    If you no longer play along the racial line, then BN is no longer the right place. Ask OKT. I am sure he sees more than most of us and he also knows the chances. Otherwise, why will he want to retreat this early.

    Gerakan, wake up !!! Dream are over.

    Like

  22. monsterball
    Aug 20, 2008 @ 00:30:38

    Pork Chop taste nice to Chinese.
    yea Doc….will be chopped….liitle by little…sooner or later.They are marking you.
    To ease the sufferings…better go to Permatang Pauh…get Tian Chua to accompany you…shouting like a mad man……'” hi…Koh Tsu Khoon you son of a gun….keep disgracing me…a loyal and pure in heart ..simple minded Gerakan member? I try so hard to control myself….not to be like monsterball……….but cannot tahan anymore!
    Hi Koh Tsu Khoon….open la…let Najib play first.
    I dare you to sack me. No balls???…then..do as I say…..you pariah chinakui”
    You instant Gerakan hero man….proposed to be President….wins it….and pull Gerakan out of BN.
    I can also drive you there….if you need my services….FOC.

    Like

  23. monsterball
    Aug 20, 2008 @ 00:37:31

    “Porky “is Doc….taste nice…….if chopped….hahahahahahaha
    And Koh Tsu Khoon is hungry to impress Dollah an Najib….will chop anyone going against Gerakan.
    Go shout it out!!
    ACTIONS SPEAKS LOUDER THAN WORDS!!
    Next day left ….make “chop sui”.

    Like

  24. VoiceOfPolitics
    Aug 20, 2008 @ 08:03:57

    In my humble opinion, Kin Woon may not be the only “conscience” within the Gerakan.

    But, the problem here, will the remaining “consciences” stay in the party?

    Or, will these “consciences” choose to fade away, from Gerakan?

    Like

  25. monsterball
    Aug 20, 2008 @ 08:16:45

    Chop off the membership of Doc is sure by his CEO in Gerakan…..sooner or later.
    Before that..the CEO will chop Doc Hsu…….little by little…to let all Gerakan members know..Doc is a traitor…an agent for DAP.
    But like I said…Doc Hsu can kill few birds with one stone….by going to Permatang Pauh…f..k..Koh Tsu Khoon left… right and centre…shouting like a mad man….until Koh have enough of him.
    That way…TV and newspapers headline news…..encouraging..more Gerakan members to resign.
    That will inspire Khoo Soo Lay and others to resign too…I hope.

    Like

  26. monsterball
    Aug 20, 2008 @ 11:14:24

    I mean Khoo Kay Peng…..not Khoo Soo Lay.

    Like

  27. Dr Hsu
    Aug 20, 2008 @ 11:17:16

    monsterball, thanks for your offer and advice. I am not seeking any position or fame. I am just a small candle trying to chase away the darkness and gloom.

    Like

  28. JP
    Aug 20, 2008 @ 15:18:28

    Tell the CEO of Gerakan, the moment Gerakan pulls out from BN, there will be thousands of “Malaysian” joining the Gerakan, I’ll be one of them.

    Make Gerakan truly a party for all Malaysian!

    Like

  29. Dr Hsu
    Aug 20, 2008 @ 15:32:15

    JP, if you see any Gerakan top leader, tell them that. In their mindset, if they come out of BN, without UMNO, they will not survive. They are still thinking of how many seats BN is allocating to them next election. I call that living in a coccoon.

    Like

  30. Gerakanwatcher
    Aug 20, 2008 @ 15:41:33

    I cracked my head for 2 days since reading your article. Now , is this Mouth Piece to do with publicity? Then I know who you are talking..hahahaha

    Why Tan Lian Hoe’s sudden somersault after 24 hours? After she indicated she would risk her job as deputy minister to voice out that Gerakan pulls out fromBN. Why then sudden change of heart? Is it due to friendly advice again? I look forward to hear from you.

    Like

  31. Dr Hsu
    Aug 20, 2008 @ 15:45:33

    Gerakanwatcher, go and read the comment by Gerakan Watcher above. I have no idea at all..

    Draw figure no need to draw the intestine, the saying goes..So i do not want to say anymore

    Like

  32. Truth Seeker
    Aug 22, 2008 @ 12:08:40

    Looks like we have to keep promoting awareness of what Good Governance is all about until it becomes a reality in our beloved Malaysia.

    —————————————————————————–

    Universal principles of good governance and rule of law …..

    Can we learn from the Iraqi experience???

    A global consensus recognizing that good governance is vital for economic development and poverty alleviation has emerged. Good governance provides an enabling environment for general economic development, human resources development, ensuring the prevention and resolution of conflict. All these elements are essential to build a firm common ground for Iraqi national reconciliation. Good governance, as we know, is a pillar of democracy. Finding a consensus on a definition of the concept of good government has not been easy. Does it apply to just sound administration and management or does it also refer to the political domain and political leadership? Is it a universal principle or does it vary according to context? This vagueness raises the risks associated with applying a concept, which may not be rooted in the particular socio-cultural and political environment of Iraq. It is generally accepted that in the context of a political and constitutional environment that upholds human rights, democratic principles and the rule of law, good governance is the transparent and accountable management of human, natural, economic and financial resources for the purpose of equitable and sustainable development. Citizens expect the government to respond to their needs through a systematic process of accountability, transparency, and checks and balances. Good governance ensures that political, social, and economic priorities reflect broad consensus, that decision-makers represent the voices of the poorest and the most vulnerable in allocating development resources, and that the rights of the people are respected. It entails clear decision-making procedures at the level of public authorities, transparent and accountable institutions, the primacy of law in the management and distribution of resources and capacity building for elaborating and implementing measures aimed in particular at preventing and combating corruption. Essentials of Good Governance, The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) defines good governance as “the responsible exercise of political, economic and administrative authority in the management of a country’s affairs at all levels”. Good governance, among other things, is participatory, transparent, accountable, effective, equitable, and fair. It promotes the rule of law. Participation ensures an open, inclusive, participatory political system. It involves citizens in the decision-making process and in implementing public projects orother government activity. Participation goes beyond mere consultation and implies the existence of opportunities to contribute through gainful employment; opportunities to move in the mainstream of political, economic, and cultural processes and the eradication of the marginalization of groups and discrimination, poverty, and deprivation; and freedom from vulnerability through a guaranteed system of social safety nets and social security systems. To this end, good governance embraces the concept of devolution of power to local authorities and communities. The right of citizens to participate in the conduct of public affairs is more directly exercised at local levels. The existence of local authorities that are given real responsibilities can provide an administrative system that is both effective and close to the citizen. Transparency involves establishing appropriate lines or forms of accountability between the government and the public, which should include access to information through suchmeasures as freedom of information legislation, open decision-making, and rules ofsubstantive and procedural fairness. The rule of law assumes the existence of inalienable rights and liberties for every citizen, which governments should not touch or violate. To some extent the essence of the rule of law lies in its juxtaposition to “the rule of men or women”. This aphorism seeks to state the following basic principles: that all state power ought to be exercised under the authority of law; and rules of law should govern the election and appointment of those who make and execute policy, as well as the manner in which such policies are made and executed to ensure rationality and fairness in the decision-making process. In addition, good governance must assure the equal participation of women with men in all processes of governance. Only complete equality between men and women in all legal, political, and social arrangements can create the proper conditions for human freedom and good governance. Establishment and protection of good governance whatever the case, it is agreed that good governance is above all a domestic issue and inadequate domestic policies have played a role in widening the gap between rich and poor and achieving good governance is a process which must come from within andsteps must be taken to support and recognize genuine initiatives to attain it. Transparency, good governance and development are closely linked and together they become a vehicle to improve the human condition. The promotion of good governance requires a determined campaign against corruption, which is one of the most concrete expressions of misadministration. The quality of the administration of a country’s resources is an essential factor that explains its development performances — good or bad. Good governance is the true test of democracy. A government, which administers scarce resources in accordance with the real needs of the population, must be fundamentally democratic.

    The political, judicial and intellectual elite must be benchmark and models of integrity. The political leadership must be genuinely determined to attack the problem of corruption and must demonstrate that determination. Good governance like democracy must not be allowed to become just another slogan – a false front to placate the providers of funds. Experience shows that it is unrealistic to hope to change things at the instigation of civil society alone. The essential first step is to influence public opinion and make decision-makers and the public at large aware of the devastating effects of misadministration. Underemployment, inadequate or sporadic employment and low wages continue to contribute to a high level of poverty in Iraq which in turn feed the militias and terrorists groups. We have to extricate ourselves from our backwardness by building a strong and democratic Iraq. Debates on national issues are healthy and should continue even after the national reconciliation. Different point of views should be respected. After all, “in a democracy dissent is an act of faith, like medicine, the taste of its value is not in its taste, but in its effects.”

    Conclusion

    The success of efforts to improve governance, the respect of human rights and the rule of the law throughout Iraq will depend on the development and strengthening of institutions that underpin good governance, democracy and the rule of law. With respect to the current political process, these efforts cannot succeed unless economic conditions in Iraq improve and develop to a level where Iraq is able to develop and sustain the institutions necessary to promote governance, the protection of human rights and the rule of law. Good governance cannot flourish along side grinding poverty and weak state institutions.

    Dr. Widad Al-Ali,
    Executive Director
    Al-Yaqeen Centre for Training, Studies and Development

    Like

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